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COPE Preparedness http://cope-preparedness.org Be Aware and Be Prepared! Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:55:53 +0000 en-US hourly 1 WILMINGTON BLAST AT REFINERY http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3816 http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3816#respond Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:55:53 +0000 http://cope-preparedness.org/?p=3816 Tesaro

Tesoro:
Fire and hazardous sulfur vapors prompt a ‘shelter in place’ alert to community
Gridlock:
Explosion also led to traffic tie-ups in Carson and Long Beach neighborhoods
By Sandy Mazza, amazza@scng.com @sandymazza on Twitter
A tank exploded August 26, 2016 at the Tesoro refinery in Wilmington, spewing hazardous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen [...]]]> TesaroTesoro:
Fire and hazardous sulfur vapors prompt a ‘shelter in place’ alert to community
Gridlock:
Explosion also led to traffic tie-ups in Carson and Long Beach neighborhoods
By Sandy Mazza, amazza@scng.com @sandymazza on Twitter
A tank exploded August 26, 2016 at the Tesoro refinery in Wilmington, spewing hazardous sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide vapors into the community and causing massive gridlock along nearby roads.
Refinery officials said the lid of the tank was somehow breached at about 1 p.m., causing a chemical explosion that set the tank’s insulation on fire, said county fire and Tesoro officials.
The refinery along South Alameda Street, which borders densely populated neighborhoods in Carson and Long Beach, alerted the community to “shelter in place” while an investigation took place.
A fire in the sulphur tank was quickly extinguished.
“There is a visible steam plume over the unit, which responders are working to discontinue,” Tesoro spokesman Ken Dami said about five hours after the explosion. “We have and are continuing to conduct air quality monitoring around the site, and at this time we have not detected any harmful level of toxins.”
No injuries were reported in the incident, and Dami said of Smoke billows after an explosion and fire at the Tesoro refinery in Wilmington. The exploding tank spewed vapors, which were being monitored. Oficials found no cause for alarm in air-quality tests throughout the afternoon. He said it will be “some time before we get to the root cause” of the explosion.
The shelter-in-place advisory was canceled about 6:30 p.m., according to a lieutenant at the Carson sheriff’s station.
Alameda Street was closed between 223rd Street and Sepulveda Boulevard until 7:30 p.m. The closure caused gridlock through rush hour on the streets in the area, which is up against the 405 and 710 freeways. The street was reopened when the steam plume was contained by a unified command of Los Angeles County firefighters, hazardous materials crews and sheriff’s officials working with Tesoro’s emergency responders.
The refinery is about to embark on a major renovation and expansion. Tesoro is merging its two neighboring plants in Carson and Wilmington, creating the largest refinery on the West Coast. It purchased the former BP refinery in Carson in 2012. Together, the two refineries process about 360,000 barrels of crude oil a day.
Tesoro anticipates spending $460 million on modernization efforts at the massive 1920s-era plants. The company hopes to greatly increase its storage capacity and build a new sulfuric acid regeneration plant so it can recycle the sulfur it removes from crude oil rather than trucking it away.
A new jet-fuel treatment facility, rail car-unloading facilities, and propane sales treating unit are also planned. One of the two refinery catalytic cracking units is also set to be removed.
The refinery plays a key role supplying fuel for vehicles in Southern California.
“One in three cars has our fuel in it in Southern California,” Dami said. City News Service contributed to this report.

Alameda Street, a busy truck corridor, was closed after an explosion and fire at the Tesoro refinery.

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Earthquakes cause Oklahoma to limit wastewater disposal wells http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3812 http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3812#respond Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:48:21 +0000 http://cope-preparedness.org/?p=3812 fracking-and-earthquakes

By Ken Miller, The Associated Press
OKLAHOMA CITY » The 37 wastewater disposal wells to be shut down in northcentral Oklahoma, where a 5.6 magnitude earthquake struck this weekend, are just a fraction of the state’s total number.
There are about 4,200 total wells across the state and about 700 in a 15,000-square-mile “Area [...]]]> fracking-and-earthquakesBy Ken Miller, The Associated Press
OKLAHOMA CITY » The 37 wastewater disposal wells to be shut down in northcentral Oklahoma, where a 5.6 magnitude earthquake struck this weekend, are just a fraction of the state’s total number.
There are about 4,200 total wells across the state and about 700 in a 15,000-square-mile “Area of Interest” created by the commission to address earthquakes in the area that includes the epicenter of Saturday’s temblor near Pawnee.
The earthquake tied a November 2011 quake as the strongest in recorded state history and was felt as far away as Nebraska, but no major damage was reported.
Not all of the state’s wells operate simultaneously, Oklahoma Corporation Commission spokesman Matt Skinner said.
“We estimate that at any one time, there are about 3,200 active disposal wells,” Skinner said.
An increase in magnitude 3.0 or greater earthquakes in Oklahoma has been linked to underground disposal of wastewater from oil and natural gas production, and since 2013, the commission has asked wastewater-well owners to reduce disposal volumes in parts of the state where the temblors have been most frequent.
The “area of interest” includes another 211 adjacent square miles that’s under the jurisdiction of the Environmental Protection Agency, and Skinner said the commission doesn’t know how many wells may be involved there.
Gov. Mary Fallin declared a state of emergency in Pawnee County because of the earthquake. State and local emergency management officials and officials from the U.S. Geological Survey assessed damage Sunday, according to Pawnee County Emergency Management Director Mark Randell.
“We’re just trying to determine just how widespread” the damage is, Randell said. He described it as minor to moderate, with some collapsed chimneys and fallen sandstone facing off buildings; no buildings collapsed.
None of the utilities, pipelines or fuel infrastructure in the area had major damage, either, the commission said. The Oklahoma Department of Transportation inspected 180 state bridges within a 30-mile radius of the epicenter and reported minor cosmetic damage to two structures, but all are open and safe for travel.
ODOT said the inspections across six counties took about six hours to complete.
“We are pleased with the speed and efficiency of our crews in their response to this event and dedication to ensuring public safety,” ODOT executive director Mike Patterson said.
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is inspecting all dams within a 50-mile radius of the epicenter, including the Birch, Cleveland Levee, Heyburn, Kaw, Keystone, and Skiatook dams.
Key energy-producing areas in both Oklahoma and Kansas saw an uptick in quakes in the first half of this decade, but took different approaches. Kansas moved quickly to limit volume in wastewater disposal wells, while Oklahoma concentrated on the depth of the disposal. Kansas saw a 60 percent drop while the frequency of quakes in Oklahoma continued to climb.

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How will California’s freeways survive a major earthquake? http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3809 http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3809#respond Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:42:59 +0000 http://cope-preparedness.org/?p=3809 freewways

By Dana Bartholomew, Los Angeles Daily News

The 1971 Sylmar earthquake sent a 6.6-magnitude jolt through the Newhall Pass, toppling a new interchange at Interstate 5 and Highway 14 and two nearby freeway overpasses, killing two.

The 1994 Northridge earthquake sent an even stronger tremor through the San Fernando Valley, once again demolishing the “5-14 [...]]]> freewwaysBy Dana Bartholomew, Los Angeles Daily News

The 1971 Sylmar earthquake sent a 6.6-magnitude jolt through the Newhall Pass, toppling a new interchange at Interstate 5 and Highway 14 and two nearby freeway overpasses, killing two.

The 1994 Northridge earthquake sent an even stronger tremor through the San Fernando Valley, once again demolishing the “5-14 split.” LAPD Officer Clarence Wayne Dean, whose police motorcycle sailed off a freeway precipice, was killed.

Since then, the state has spent billions shoring up freeway bridges and overpasses. Nonetheless, Southern California’s maze of freeways, roads and railroads could still be impacted in the next major quake.

“We’ve certainly learned a lot since previous earthquakes, and have worked hard to bring bridges owned by the state to the latest seismic standards,” said Vanessa Wiseman, a spokeswoman for the state Department of Transportation, or Caltrans. “They are safer as a result.

“But we keep getting more information about more earthquake faults, and what’s new, and what’s more active. It’s important to design something that, in a strong enough earthquake, won’t be damaged.”

Earthquakes to shake the Southland over the last half century have not been kind to its transportation network, halting the delivery of goods and services, hampering employees trying to get to work, and dampening the overall economy.

The Sylmar earthquake knocked down three major freeway overpasses and severely damaged 42 bridges, littering freeways with debris, according to studies afterward.

The Northridge earthquake, at a stronger 6.7 magnitude, shattered more freeway overpasses on the Golden State, Antelope Valley, Simi Valley and Santa Monica freeways, in addition to miles of local roads and bridges, crippling commutes for millions.

The quake also derailed a 64-car freight train between Northridge and Chatsworth, which leaked toxic sulphuric acid. Local airports, including Los Angeles International, halted traffic for two hours as a safety precaution.

Recovery from those quakes took from months to years, with the need for safer roads and transit systems evolving out of decades of earthquake damage and research.

To protect highways — and lives — during future temblors, Caltrans has spent billions on seismic retrofits of state roads and bridges, with millions more granted for city and county roadway fixes.

After Sylmar, the state focused on upgrading its freeway bridge expansion joints. The deadly 6.9-magnitude 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake in Northern California prompted another massive renovation program.

Older overpasses, with rigid joints and columns, are being retrofitted to flex in order to stand up to a quake.

To keep them from collapsing like the failed Newhall Pass interchanges, the bridges and overpasses are being strengthened with steel cable and spiral column supports, with enlarged footings and deep pilings in soft soil.

“It’s important to design something that, in a strong enough earthquake, will bend instead of break,” Wiseman said. “We have folks around the world who turn to our seismic engineers for advice.”

The U.S. Geological Survey eight years ago predicted a near-certain likelihood of a major earthquake in California during the next 30 years.

For the Los Angeles region, the likelihood of another magnitude 6.7 earthquake like Northridge was 67 percent; for Southern California, 97 percent.

In the event of a much stronger quake, the agency modeled a “ShakeOut Scenario” of a magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the southern San Andreas Fault east of Palm Springs in tandem with the world’s largest earthquake drill.

The earthquake would rip for three minutes across Southern California, sparking 1,600 fires, damaging 300,000 buildings and causing $213 billion in economic losses. When the dust eventually settled, nearly 2,000 residents would lay dead, while 50,000 would suffer serious injuries.

The midmorning quake would race at 2 miles a second through the Inland Empire, severing Interstate 15 at the Cajon Pass, while bending rail lines, derailing a train and sending landslides across rails and roads.

But the state highway system would fare well, according to the model quake. A $6 billion investment in seismic retrofitting would pay off, with the only highway deaths being crashes caused by intense earthquake shaking.

But the Big One would take a tremendous toll on city and county bridges and overpasses, according to the USGS forecast, where seismic retrofitting was not completed, or yet begun.

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SoCal leads in bad-air deaths http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3807 http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3807#respond Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:29:59 +0000 http://cope-preparedness.org/?p=3807 pollution

By David Danelski, ddanelski@scng.com

Breathing smog kills about 1,341 in greater L.A. each year; ports are biggest fixed sources of pollution, research shows.

As Southern California continues to struggle through this summer’s unrelenting smog, a study released Wednesday gives a stark reminder of why air quality matters.
Researchers believe hundreds of people die each year [...]]]> pollutionBy David Danelski, ddanelski@scng.com

Breathing smog kills about 1,341 in greater L.A. each year; ports are biggest fixed sources of pollution, research shows.

As Southern California continues to struggle through this summer’s unrelenting smog, a study released Wednesday gives a stark reminder of why air quality matters.
Researchers believe hundreds of people die each year because of Southern California’s poor air quality. Pollution levels routinely exceed the levels deemed safe by health professionals.
In the report, the Long Beach and South Bay areas are included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale category, where about 1,341 people are estimated to die each year because of bad air.
That makes the L.A. area’s air quality the deadliest in the nation.
The Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario metropolitan area was second worst, with about 808 people estimated to die annually because of air pollution.
Nationally, the deaths were estimated at 9,320 a year, which is comparable to the number of lives lost annually to drunken driving.
The study was conducted by the American Thoracic Society, a group of health care professionals that focuses on understanding pulmonary diseases, critical illnesses and sleeprelated breathing disorders, and New York University’s Marron Institute of Urban Management.
In the Los Angeles area defined in the report, the biggest fixed sources of pollution are the twin ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, according to air-quality regulators. At these hubs, hundreds of tons of diesel emission pour annually from ships, big rigs and freight-moving equipment such as cranes.
However, both ports have spent millions shoring up the air-pollution-cutting efforts and, in the past decade, have cut diesel particulate matter linked to respiratory ailments by 85 percent.
“We have come a long way, and we recognize there is more work to do,” said Port of Los Angeles spokesman Phil Sanfield.
Some critics say the ports can do more to curb pollution from trucks, vessels and cargo equipment. David Pettit, an attorney for the Natural Resources Defense Fund, which sued the Port of Los Angeles in 2001 on behalf of community members to bring clean-air measures to a project, said the number of deaths brings home the real public cost.
“It shouldn’t have gotten this way in the first place,” he said, adding that he hopes the report serves as a wakeup call.
The study’s lead author, Kevin Cromer, a professor at the NYU institute, said by telephone that he hopes the results will raise public awareness and better inform policymakers.
“We are just providing previously unavailable information that can help airquality managers and cities make more meaningful decisions,” said Cromer, who has expertise in population health and environmental medicine.
The study was based on air pollution data for both fine particle and ozone levels in U.S. metropolitan areas recorded in 2011, 2012 and 2013.
The numbers of deaths and illnesses were then estimated through computer analysis that took into account epidemiological studies linking various health effects to air pollution exposure.
The researchers noted that they believe their results are conservative. They did not count deaths from cancers that take decades to develop or deaths from the exacerbation of other chronic illnesses such as diabetes.
Cromer and his colleagues also created a website, www. HealthoftheAir.org, that allows users to input ZIP codes to learn the estimated numbers of deaths and illness in regions throughout the nation.
Dr. Ahmet Baydur, a pulmonary expert and professor of clinical medicine at USC’s Keck School of Medicine, said the people most at risk are those whose lungs already are damaged by smoking and people with emphysema, chronic bronchitis and severe asthma.
Of particular concern are people who need to treat themselves with oxygen from portable oxygen tanks, he said.
Air pollution causes inflammation that creates mucus and swelling that blocks internal air passageways, he said. Inflammation from air pollution also can trigger heart attacks, Baydur said.
In addition to deaths, the study estimated the number of acute illnesses attributable to air pollution. This was done by tallying the expected number of heart attacks, cardiac and respiratory hospitalizations, and emergency room visits.
In the Riverside-San Bernardino- Ontario area, these illnesses were estimated at 1,416 a year, while the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale area had an estimated 3,255 such illnesses.
The study further estimated the number of times people called in sick, missed school or otherwise had to curtail their activities because of air pollution. In the Los Angeles-Long Beach-Glendale area, this number was about 2.9 million, while the Inland area had 1.3 million such days.
The study was released as Southern California’s ocean-to-mountains air basin is weathering a tough smog season. As of Monday, the region had exceeded the federal health standard for lung-irritating ozone during at least 90 days.
That’s 24 more unhealthful days than last year, with the worst pollution in the Crestline, Redlands and San Bernardino areas.
Baydur said research has shown the cost of reducing air pollution is much less than the cost for health care and lost productivity associated with bad air.
He is a member of the American Thoracic Society, which recommends a more protective ozone standard of 60 parts per billion.
“Anything we can do to reduce particle and gaseous air pollutants will be extremely helpful in the long run,” Baydur said. “An estimated 9,000 deaths a year is quite significant.”
Officials with the South Coast Air Quality Management District welcomed the study.
“Studies such as this one help illustrate the important public health impacts of air pollution,” said Jo Kay Ghosh, the air district’s health effects officer.
“The good news is that air pollution levels are going down here in Southern California, but we clearly need to continue our efforts to adopt policies and programs that will help us to achieve clean air here in the reg ion,” Ghosh said in a statement.
Staff writer Rachel Uranga contributed to this report.

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5 Things to know about ZIKA virus http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3805 http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3805#respond Wed, 07 Sep 2016 00:22:30 +0000 http://cope-preparedness.org/?p=3805 zika mosquito

Worries over the Zika virus hit home last week with the devastating announcement that two California babies were born with microcephaly, even as Florida began aerial spraying to counter the spread of the first U.S. outbreak.
The types of mosquitoes that transmit Zika elsewhere are scattered throughout Southern California, although so far none have [...]]]> zika mosquitoWorries over the Zika virus hit home last week with the devastating announcement that two California babies were born with microcephaly, even as Florida began aerial spraying to counter the spread of the first U.S. outbreak.
The types of mosquitoes that transmit Zika elsewhere are scattered throughout Southern California, although so far none have tested positive for the virus or been linked to a human case.
Here is what public health and mosquito experts know about the risk here: How widespread is the disease?
Q A California has reported 134 travel-associated Zika virus infections in 23 counties, including 23 cases in pregnant women. Los Angeles County has 29 cases, including nine pregnant women. Orange County has 10 cases; San Bernardino County has seven and Riverside County has three.
How likely are mosquitoes to spread Zika in Southern California?
A The chance is low but certainly possible, said Dr. Vicki Kramer, chief of vectorborne diseases for the state Department of Public Health. The two nonnative species that can carry Zika — yellow fever and Asian tiger mosquitoes — both bite during the day. They have been found in parts of Los Angeles, Orange and San Bernardino counties. Riverside County has only had the yellow fever mosquito, which is the most likely of the two to transmit Zika. “We do anticipate the abundance of distribution will continue to increase,” Kramer said. “We are at the peak time of year when these mosquitoes are active.” If transmission does occur, it is expected to be limited in range as has so far been the case in Florida.
“These mosquitoes just don’t fly very far,” said Jared Dever, spokesman for Orange County Mosquito and Vector Control District. “They are perfectly happy completing their life cycle, including feeding on humans, in a single backyard.”
Q How are Zika strike forces working to knock out the mosquitoes?
A After a traveler tests positive for Zika, vector control workers visit the patient’s neighborhood to search for mosquitoes, test them for the virus and eliminate breeding sources.
Neighbors are also provided with educational material in multiple languages. One challenge, however, is that the yellow fever and Asian tiger mosquitoes are not dependent on standing water to breed, unlike the mosquito that transmits West Nile virus, Dever said. Mosquitoes that carry Zika can lay eggs in empty containers, such as a gardening pot, and survive for more than six months until rainfall.
Q Will travelers returning to Southern California from the Olympics accelerate the number of Zika cases?
A It’s winter in Brazil and mosquitoes are less prevalent, so the threat of transmission is considered less likely than from Latin American countries located in the Northern Hemisphere.
In Los Angeles County, for instance, most of the Zika cases have been diagnosed in travelers returning from Honduras, El Salvador and Guatemala, said Dr. Ben Schwartz, acting director of the acute communicable disease control program for Los Angeles County’s Department of Public Health.
“Probably the greatest risk is in those who go back and forth to those countries to visit friends and family who may live in villages where there isn’t air conditioning or screens on windows,” Schwartz said. “For people who are traveling to Rio and staying in hotels with air conditioning, I think the risk is probably less.”
Q What is being done here to monitor pregnant women with Zika?
A Schwartz said once a pregnant woman tests positive, she and her obstetrician are briefed on the illness and potential risks to the unborn baby. Upon birth, testing is done to see if the infant is infected.
Dr. Karen Smith, state health officer, said the infants born with microcephaly, which is characterized by an abnormally small head and typically underdeveloped brains, will be monitored for the first year of life. They will be tracked not only for neurological problems but for hearing, vision and other developmental issues.
“We’re not just following infants who clearly have birth defects, we’re going to be following infants who appear normal at birth,” Smith said.
“There’s a lot we don’t know about the full spectrum of what Zika gained congenitally could cause.” For more information visit www.cdph.ca.gov

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West Nile virus surfacing in San Pedro, Gardena http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3801 http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3801#respond Sat, 06 Aug 2016 15:20:37 +0000 http://cope-preparedness.org/?p=3801 west nile

By Donna Littlejohn

A mosquito found this month near 22nd Street Park tested positive for the West Nile virus, the first confirmed sample found in San Pedro in two years, according to county officials.
This year is shaping up to be a busy West Nile season countywide. And the expected peak of the activ [...]]]> west nileBy Donna Littlejohn

A mosquito found this month near 22nd Street Park tested positive for the West Nile virus, the first confirmed sample found in San Pedro in two years, according to county officials.
This year is shaping up to be a busy West Nile season countywide. And the expected peak of the activ it y — late summer into early fall — hasn’t even arrived yet.
“Activity is heavier than last year,” said Levy Sun of the Greater Los Angeles County Vector Control District. He attributed that condition to factors such as warmer temperatures, bird migratory and population patterns and more standing water.
GLAC Vector Control is one of two districts monitoring the Los Angeles area. A smaller area, but one that includes Torrance, is overseen by the Los Angeles County West Vector Control District.
From January to July 28, 2015, the GLAC district, which includes parts of Carson and Long Beach and stretches as far north as the San Fernando Valley, found 26 positive mosquito or other samples. During the same period this year, he said, there have been 78 positive samples collected.
In addition to the San Pedro collection, another positive sample was found in May near Normandie Avenue and Artesia Boulevard in Gardena. Both a positive mosquito and positive bird sample were found in that location, Sun said.
And two sentinel chicken samples testing positive for the virus were also confirmed this month in Rolling Hills Estates, according to the Los Angeles County West Vector Control District.
Other positive samples have been found in Lakewood, Bellflower, Whittier.
Vector control officials on Thursday will begin conducting door-to-door awareness campaigns in high-risk neighborhoods, starting with an area in Sun Valley.
The samples indicate the possibility that the virus could be widespread throughout Los Angeles County. Residents are advised to take precautions to avoid mosquito bites and to dump and drain any standing water once a week around homes.
Information and monitoring details, including lists of cities where the virus has been detected, can be found at www. glacvcd.org/ and at www.lawestvector. org/.

dlittlejohn@scng@com @donnalittlejohn on Twitter

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RESEARCHERS SAY L.A. RIVER TAINTED WITH HARMFUL BACTERIA http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3798 http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3798#respond Sat, 06 Aug 2016 15:16:25 +0000 http://cope-preparedness.org/?p=3798 LA river

By Dana Bartholomew
Raul Aquino followed a group of kayakers down to the Los Angeles River, dipped a yellow boot into its flowing stream, then waded past some rocks and algae.
He stooped to collect a water sample in the Sepulveda Basin just as nearly a half-dozen kayaks passed beneath the Burbank Boulevard bridge.
LA riverBy Dana Bartholomew
Raul Aquino followed a group of kayakers down to the Los Angeles River, dipped a yellow boot into its flowing stream, then waded past some rocks and algae.
He stooped to collect a water sample in the Sepulveda Basin just as nearly a half-dozen kayaks passed beneath the Burbank Boulevard bridge.
“I didn’t see any fecal matter,” reported Aquino, 29, a volunteer for a Heal the Bay “stream team” now studying pollution in rivers, streams and watering holes throughout Los Angeles. “Just some fish. Doesn’t look clean.”
It wasn’t. Such recreation hot spots that have sprung up in recent years along the
Los Angeles River can suffer from very poor water quality, according to a Heal the Bay study released Wednesday.
The popular river stretches also can harbor enough fecal bacteria to make kayakers, anglers and swimmers sick, it said.
The study found elevated levels of two fecal indicator bacteria within the last remaining naturalbottom sections of the L.A. River: in the Sepulveda Basin in Lake Balboa and in the Elysian Valley north of downtown. Samples were drawn once a
week for three months last summer.
At Rattlesnake and Steelhead parks in Elysian Valley, where federal officials have approved a $1.3 billion plan to revitalize 11 miles of river habitat to enhance recreation, the team found the bacteria enterococcus exceeded federal standards in 100 percent of water samples.
At Rattlesnake Park, testers found E. coli exceeded standards in 67 percent of 13 weekly samples.
Miles upriver at the Sepulveda Basin, testers found enterococcus in 50 percent of their summer samples, and E. coli in 20 percent.
High fecal indicator bacteria suggest a potential risk for ear infections and respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses.
It was on a bright Tuesday morning that Heal the Bay watershed scientist Katherine Pease joined Aquino and intern Xochitl Garcia at the Los Angeles River north of Sepulveda Dam. A snowy egret and black-necked stilts pecked at the shallow flat between rows of cattails, castor bean and willows.
“The bacteria is sometimes over the threshold limits and can be unhealthy in the Sepulveda Basin,” said Pease, author of the study and leader of 30 regular stream team testers. “These bacteria can make k aya kers sick if they get it int o their mouths, or cuts, or eyes. I wouldn’t drink it. (But) If you take certain precautions, it should be pretty safe.”
Others had tested the river and found bacterial pollution, enough for the state to declare the river impaired. But no one had regularly sampled the waters in its increasingly used recreation areas.
Bird watching, fishing and wading had once been L.A. River pastimes until the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers transformed it into a mostly concrete flood control channel beginning in the 1930s.
But then river advocates and city officials called for it to become an urban oasis for recreation and a watershed for new commercial and residential development.
In 2011, the Sepulveda Basin was dubbed a destination for freshwater recreation. Then three years ago, Elysian Valley was legally opened to nonmotorized boating, fishing, birdwatching and walking.
With four kayak outfitters now offering river tours, however, the new bacteria study may serve as a public health warning.
But a spokesman for Paddle the L.A. River, an outfitter for the Los Angeles Conservation Corps that ferried a group of at-risk teens Tuesday for a Pokémon Go kayak hunt filmed by Telemundo, was convinced the Los Angeles River was safe. It hosts public tours three times a day on Friday and Saturday for $30.
“The water is purified,” said Mike Meno of the Conservation Corps, before heading on a ¾-mile paddle upriver. “And if it’s deemed safe enough to paddle, it’s good enough for us. If it wasn’t safe, the L.A. Conservation Corps wouldn’t be putting kayaks in the water.” Heal the Bay was quick to point out that the treated Los Angeles wastewater from the Tillman Reclamation Plant upriver was not considered a source for bacterial pollution. A 2.4-million gallon sewage spill on July 18 in Boyle Heights occurred downstream and was not included in the study. Rather, the harmful bacteria was likely caused by urban runoff, leaks from wastewater coll ection systems, illegal connec tions and failing septic tanks. Bacteria sources include pets, horses and human waste.
A similar study published last year by the environmental advocacy group found two of three popular swimming holes in the Santa Monica Mountains contained similar bacteria caused by runoff.
Heal the Bay recommended that residents avoid swimming in the L.A. River, while kayakers and others should limit water contact. The group also called for increased monitoring and public notification.
“The public has a right to know about water quality conditions in the L.A. River so that they can make informed decisions on how to minimize their risk of getting sick,” said Rita Kampalath, Heal the Bay’s science and policy director, in a statement. “We look forward to working with the city and recreation outfitters to improve outreach and monitoring measures along the river.”
“The public has a right to know about water quality conditions in the L.A.River so that they can make informed decisions on how to minimize their risk of getting sick.”
— Rita Kampalath, Heal the Bay’s science and policy director

Raul Aquino, a volunteer for Heal the Bay, takes the temperature of the water in the Los Angeles River. Popular stretches of the river can harbor enough fecal bacteria to make kayakers, anglers and swimmers sick, according to a Heal the Bay study released Wednesday.
» dbartholomew@scng.com » @DN_DanaBart on Twitter

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BREATHING HARD ALONG THE COAST http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3794 http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3794#respond Sat, 06 Aug 2016 15:08:35 +0000 http://cope-preparedness.org/?p=3794 pollution

Pollution: Hot, stagnant weather gives region just 5 days of clean air since May
By David Danelski

If the smog seems terrible this summer, well, it is. ¶ In June, Southern California’s ocean-to-mountains air basin had just four days of healthy air. ¶ Things got worse in July when ozone levels exceeded the federal health [...]]]> pollutionPollution: Hot, stagnant weather gives region just 5 days of clean air since May
By David Danelski

If the smog seems terrible this summer, well, it is. ¶ In June, Southern California’s ocean-to-mountains air basin had just four days of healthy air. ¶ Things got worse in July when ozone levels exceeded the federal health standard every day except July 31. And as August begins, there’s no relief in sight. ¶ Officials with the region’s air quality agency blame the bad air on this summer’s unusually hot and stagnant weather — not an increase in emissions from cars, trucks, factories and other pollution sources. ¶ In fact, the South Coast Air Quality Management District estimates that smog-forming emissions are down thanks to rules that require increasingly cleaner cars, trucks and other machinery, said Philip Fine, the air district’s deputy executive officer.
The weather, however, is another story. “We have had a lot of record- breaking temperatures and high temperatures result in a lot of ozone formation,” Fine said. Also, atmospheric conditions caused by inversion layers have forced the pollution to concentrate in the air basin, he said. Normally, it mixes with cleaner air and eases in the late afternoon.
The numbers suggest a step backward from years of clean-air progress.
Pollution data made public by the California Air Resources Board show that so far this year Southern California has exceeded the federal health standard for ozone during 85 days. That is 21 more unhealthful days than last year’s count as of Aug. 3.
Not only is the region exceeding the health standard more often, pollution levels are also reaching higher levels. This summer has had seven days during which ozone levels were higher than last year’s worst day.
Ozone forms when nitrogen oxides — mostly from burning fuels — react with volatile organic compounds, such as fumes from gasoline, varnish or nail polish, with help from sunlight. The hotter it gets, the faster this chemical reaction occurs.
Ozone irritates the moist tissues in our eyes, noses and lungs. It causes nausea and headaches and triggers asthma attacks, among other health problems. Various studies have shown that more children miss school and more workers call in sick during bad-air days. Studies also link ozone to early deaths.
Sam Atwood, a spokesman for the air district, urged people, especially those with respiratory conditions, to follow air quality forecasts and sign up for the air district’s air alerts at www.aqmd.gov/airalerts/.
Fine said people can avoid ozone exposure by staying indoors because it needs sunlight to form.
Karen Jakpor, a Riverside resident and volunteer for the American Lung Association, has asthma so severe she sometimes has trouble speaking.
“It’s much worse this summer for my breathing than previous years,” she said.
She has had to increase the dose of her steroid medications and was briefly hospitalized, she said.
Jakpor has to stay indoors much of the time, and that meant her 11-year-old daughter had to miss her swimming lessons on at least three occasions.
“The numbers of days each year I have to stay indoors is the same number of days my daughter can’t play outside, because she has to be supervised,” she said.
Terry Roberts, the managing director for the American Lung Association in the Inland Southern California, Bakersfield and Fresno areas, said this year’s smog season underscores the need to make more progress in reducing emissions.
“We need to improve air quality every way we can,” she said, noting that most of the pollution comes from trucks and other vehicles. “We need to all work together to find cleaner transportation solutions.”

ddanelski@scng.com @DavidDanelski on Twitter

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Grid Attack: How America Could Go Dark http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3792 http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3792#respond Sat, 06 Aug 2016 14:56:01 +0000 http://cope-preparedness.org/?p=3792 grid

By Rebecca Smith, The Wall Street Journal

An early morning passerby phoned in a report of two people with flashlights prowling inside the fence of an electrical substation in Bakersfield, Calif. Utility workers from Pacific Gas & Electric Co. later found cut transformer wires.
The following night, someone slashed wires to alarms and critical equipment [...]]]> gridBy Rebecca Smith, The Wall Street Journal

An early morning passerby phoned in a report of two people with flashlights prowling inside the fence of an electrical substation in Bakersfield, Calif. Utility workers from Pacific Gas & Electric Co. later found cut transformer wires.
The following night, someone slashed wires to alarms and critical equipment at the substation, which serves 16,700 customers. A guard surprised one intruder, who fled. Police never learned the identities or motive of the burglars.
The Bakersfield attacks last year were among dozens of break-ins examined by The Wall Street Journal that show how, despite federal orders to secure the power grid, tens of thousands of substations are still vulnerable to saboteurs.
The U.S. electric system is in danger of widespread blackouts lasting days, weeks or longer through the destruction of sensitive, hard-to-replace equipment. Yet records are so spotty that no government agency can offer an accurate tally of substation attacks, whether for vandalism, theft or more nefarious purposes.
Most substations are unmanned and often protected chiefly by chain-link fences. Many have no electronic security, leaving attacks unnoticed until after the damage is done. Even if there are security cameras, they often prove worthless. In some cases, alarms are simply ignored.
The vulnerability of substations was broadly revealed in a Journal account of a 2013 attack on PG&E’s Metcalf facility near San Jose, Calif. Gunmen knocked out 17 transformers that help power Silicon Valley; a blackout was narrowly averted. The assailants were never caught.
The following year, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, which regulates the country’s interstate power system, began requiring that utilities better protect any substation that could disable parts of the U.S. grid if attacked.
FERC’s new rule, however, doesn’t extend to tens of thousands of smaller substations, including Metcalf and the one in Bakersfield. Security experts say a simultaneous attack on several of these substations also could destabilize the grid and cause widespread blackouts.
Gerry Cauley, head of the North American Electric Reliability Corp., —which writes standards for the grid—was asked at a FERC hearing in June on grid security what kept him up at night. He said the prospect of “eight or 10 vans going to different sites and blowing things up.” Recovery from a coordinated attack, he said, could take weeks or months.
The Metcalf substation, while undergoing security upgrades, was hit again in August 2014. Intruders cut through fences and burglarized equipment containers, triggering at least 14 alarms over four hours. Utility employees didn’t call police or alert guards, who were stationed at the site, according to a state inquiry.
Three days after the break-in, Stephanie Douglas, PG&E’s senior director of corporate security, sent a memo to the utility’s president saying security was in a fail mode, and her department lacked clout and resources: She had 26 full-time jobs to protect 900 substations, as well gas pipelines and other utility assets.
Ms. Douglas, no longer with PG&E, declined an interview request. PG&E spokesman Matt Nauman said the utility has responded with a $200-million program that includes better security equipment, more training and hiring.
The sprawling U.S. electric system is regulated by government but mostly owned and operated by utility companies and grid operators that monitor electricity supply and demand every minute, every day. The system is always on—and for years few thought anyone would try to turn it off.
The motive of most substation break-ins appears to be theft. Intruders and, potentially, terrorists also could be trying to hack into control systems through computer equipment in substations—either to cause immediate damage or to gather information for later use.
“A substation is not an obvious target for criminals like a bank,” said Joseph Weiss, a security consultant to utilities. “Common sense says they want to get into the electric system.”
The U.S. power grid is like a giant puzzle that can be configured in different ways to deliver power where and when it is needed.
Major power sources—gas-fired generators and nuclear-power plants, for example—connect to substations that raise voltages to ferry electricity long distance over a network of power lines. At cities and other destinations, substations lower the voltage to safely deliver electricity to homes and businesses. Substation computers help grid operators control those electrical flows.
The grid was cobbled together during the electrification of the U.S. over the past 125 years. It is a fragile, interdependent system generally more vulnerable in summer when it is running closer to its limits. It is also at risk during low-demand periods, when power-plant operators and linemen perform maintenance. Fewer plants and transmission lines operating mean fewer options for delivering electricity during emergencies.
There is so much variability in the grid that what causes a catastrophe one day might not the next, which makes security issues complex. Small problems can quickly spiral out of control.
On Sept. 8, 2011, equipment problems and human error caused a large transmission line in Arizona to trip out of service. The grid is supposed to withstand the loss of any one line. On this day, electric current shifted to nearby lines and overloaded them; that overtaxed transformers at two small substations, which shut down defensively to prevent equipment damage, and disruptions spread.
San Diego was blacked out 11 minutes later. Traffic snarled. Flights were canceled. Raw sewage flowed into the ocean. Altogether, 2.7 million utility customers lost power in California, Arizona and Mexico.
Federal officials have long known about the vulnerability of electrical substations. A 1990 report from the federal Office of Technology Assessment warned that “virtually any region would suffer major, extended blackouts if more than three key substations were destroyed.”
A 2012 report from the National Research Council of the National Academies of Sciences looked at different parts of the electric system and concluded that substations were “the most vulnerable to terrorist attack.”
“We’ve known we had an issue for a long time and have been very slow to do anything about it,” said M. Granger Morgan, a professor of engineering at Carnegie Mellon University who studied the San Diego blackout.
Security adviser James Holler said his company, Abidance Consulting, inspected nearly 1,000 substations over the past year for utilities in 14 states. “At least half had nothing but a padlock on the gate,” he said. “No cameras. No motion sensors or alarms.”
One utility lost a set of substation keys that were in a truck stolen for a joy ride. After the truck and keys were recovered, Mr. Holler said, the utility didn’t change the substation locks.
Richard Donohoe, director of security for the consulting firm Black & Veatch, said the security departments of utility companies are often so low in the pecking order that “the rest of the organization ignores them half the time.”
After the gunfire attack on the Metcalf substation, FERC required enhanced protection for individual substations “that if rendered inoperable or damaged could result in widespread instability,” or cascading blackouts in any of the three separate sections of the U.S. power grid.
That is a high bar. Utility experts aren’t sure how many substations the new rules cover but estimate it is fewer than 350 out of approximately 55,000. They say more protections are needed at smaller substations that could trigger blackouts if attacked in combination.
The exact combinations depend on energy demand and the direction of electricity flow. In spring, for example, hydroelectric power plants send electricity from the Pacific Northwest to California. In winter, electricity flows in the opposite direction, mostly from gas-fired and nuclear power plants in California and Arizona.
One security-focused nonprofit group called the Foundation for Resilient Societies has called for an analysis of the impact of simultaneous attacks, both physical and cyber.
Thomas Popik, chairman of the group, told FERC in June that existing grid protections were inadequate and his group believed the grid was “a battlefield of the future” that required military-type defenses for key infrastructure.
Michael Bardee, director of the Office of Electric Reliability at FERC, said the agency could do more to study security vulnerabilities at the thousands of substations not covered by the new rule. FERC expects a progress report on the new rule later this year.
“Clearly, there’s some sense that as events go on we may need to re-evaluate the applicability of this standard,” Mr. Bardee said, and possibly expand its reach.
The Vermont Electric Power Co. approved a $12 million program to beef up security at 55 locations after substations were penetrated more than a dozen times by thieves stealing copper during break-ins from 2012 through early 2014.
“We haven’t seen a theft in over a year,” said Kerrick Johnson, a spokesman. The utility installed more secure fencing and better security cameras.
Most utilities are reluctant to spend money on security unless under government orders. They must justify their expenses to regulatory agencies to pass on the costs to ratepayers, said John Kassakian, an emeritus professor of electrical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Security upgrades generally include cameras, lights and motion sensors, as well as password-controlled doors and gates that electronically monitor entries and exits. Terror threats, Mr. Kassakian said, probably seem less pressing than spending to comply with federal environmental rules.
Utilities don’t always report attacks despite a legal requirement to notify the Energy Department within six hours of any event that could interrupt electricity or if a break-in targets security systems.
No utility has been fined for failing to comply as far as he knew, said David Ortiz, deputy assistant secretary at the Energy Department: “I don’t have an enforcement team.”
The Journal found nine substation break-ins over the past two years where theft wasn’t the apparent motive. The tally and details of the break-ins were gleaned from interviews and public records requests. The count included attacks affecting the federally owned Liberty substation in Buckeye, Ariz.
The substation, about 35 miles west of Phoenix, is a critical link in the southwest power corridor, delivering electricity to heat homes in northwestern states during winter and cool buildings in the southwest during summer.
On Nov. 5, 2013, someone slashed fiber-optic cables that serve Liberty, as well as the larger Mead substation near Hoover Dam. It took workers about two hours to re-establish proper communications and normal controls.

Liberty is operated by the Western Area Power Administration, which controls 17,000 miles of high-voltage power lines used by utilities serving 40 million people in 15 states. If this system suffered a catastrophic failure, it would take down other utilities with it, experts said.

Alarms signaling trouble at Liberty began ringing at a utility operations center in Phoenix 13 days after the communications outage. Dozens of alarms sounded over two days before an electrician was dispatched.

The electrician expected a false alarm. Instead, he found the perimeter fence sliced open and the steel door to the control building “peeled back like a sardine can,” said Keith Cloud, the utility’s head of security.

The substation’s computer cabinets were pried open. The substation’s security cameras proved useless: eight of 10 were broken or pointed at the sky, Mr. Cloud said. Most had been out of operation for a year or more.

Two months later, on Jan. 30, 2014, Liberty was hit again. Two men with a satchel cut the gate lock and headed to the control building. They left after trying, unsuccessfully, to cut power to a security trailer outfitted with cameras and blinking lights, which were installed after the first break-in.

This time, Mr. Cloud said, utility officials found 16 of 18 security cameras had failed. Most were installed after the first break-in and hadn’t been properly programmed. Investigators retrieved a single fuzzy video from a thermal-imaging camera.

Mark Gabriel, WAPA’s administrator, said the utility has “taken steps to improve our physical security program and processes,” including creating the security department in 2013 that Mr. Cloud now heads.

A federal audit faulted WAPA in April for violations of security regulations, including broken or obsolete equipment, lax control over keys to critical substations and failure to install intrusion-detection systems.

Mr. Gabriel said WAPA spends a couple of hundred million dollars on capital improvements annually, which includes money for security improvements. “The bigger story is how that break-in and others in the industry changed the thinking,” he said.

Mr. Cloud said he has received about $300,000 for security upgrades at a handful of WAPA’s 328 substations, including Liberty. To protect the system’s 40 most important substations and control centers, he said, he needs $90 million: “I don’t have the authority or budget to protect my substations.”

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A lesson learned in minutes may save lives: ‘Hands-Only CPR’ http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3789 http://cope-preparedness.org/archives/3789#respond Sat, 06 Aug 2016 14:50:59 +0000 http://cope-preparedness.org/?p=3789 CPR-Training-in-bakersfield

Elvie Thompson, a HUD employee who learned CPR years ago when she was in the Army, quickly picked up the rhythm of the new technique, called Hands-Only CPR, humming along to the song’s of the Bee Gees classic “Stayin’ Alive.”

Ah, ha, ha, ha, stayin’ alive, stayin’ alive. The plus beats per minute — the ideal pace [...]]]> CPR-Training-in-bakersfieldElvie Thompson, a HUD employee who learned CPR years ago when she was in the Army, quickly picked up the rhythm of the new technique, called Hands-Only CPR, humming along to the song’s of the Bee Gees classic “Stayin’ Alive.”

Ah, ha, ha, ha, stayin’ alive, stayin’ alive. The plus beats per minute — the ideal pace for chest compressions.

Thompson is now among the more than 6,200 District residents trained in this updated version of CPR, which eliminates mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and emphasizes chest compressions to quickly pump blood to an oxygen-deprived brain.

“I might need to use it, you never know,” said Thompson, 58, who works in the housing agency’s information technology division and worries about being alone with her grandchildren. Like others, she felt more comfortable with the hands-only version of CPR.

“I like that I don’t have to put my mouth on a stranger’s,” she said.

Hands-Only CPR is the new, streamlined version of the lifesaving technique that was developed in the 1960s. While the old version requires an oft-forgotten series of steps that need to be timed, the new way is simpler. It doesn’t require checking for a pulse, using a finger to clear an airway, making contact with the patient’s mouth or even watching to see if his chest rises and falls.

The instructions are simple: “Pump the chest until we get there,” Green told Thompson at the HUD health fair, one of 157 training events the fire department has attended in recent months. Press down two inches, she implores, and don’t obsesses over the ribs. “If you live, what’s a broken bone?” Green said.

Efforts to train ordinary citizens in Hands-Only CPR have taken off across the country.

Texas Tech University and several partners this year hosted “Texas Two Step: How to Save a Life” and trained about 4,000 people across the state in CPR. In Philadelphia, a coalition of government, health-care and other groups is bringing training to community centers, public libraries, faith organizations and other venues. And Maryland’s emergency workers have already taught tens of thousands of residents.

Howard County, one of the leaders in Maryland’s training, has taught 45,000 people — about 15 percent of its population — and boasts a survival rate of 50 percent for people who suffer heart attacks and are given CPR by bystanders. Survival chances drop to about 10 percent when help is not immediately provided.

“If someone isn’t doing something to pump blood into the brain until emergency crews get there, the probability of having a good outcome is very low,” said Matthew Levy, the medical director for the Howard County Department of Fire and Rescue Services.

With the new method, the training can be quick and convenient. In Montgomery County, firefighters are teaching hands-only in “pop-up” fashion at various events, such as impromptu appearances at malls and, more recently, at the Bethesda farmers market. There, they taught the technique to 400 people.

Prince George’s County plans to launch training next month. Officials there also say they plan to join Howard County in using a smartphone app called PulsePoint that alerts users who are trained in CPR whenever 911 is called for a heart attack within a quarter-mile radius. The app provides both the location of the person in distress and the nearest automatic external defibrillator, a device that is becoming more common in public areas.

Jennifer A. Abele, the medical director and chair of the Department of Emergency Medicine at Sibley Memorial Hospital, said the hands-only approach simplifies the process for people who might freeze when faced with a real emergency.

“This is a great advance in the evolution of how we treat patients who go into sudden cardiac arrest,” Abele said. “Panic is one of the major obstacles to performing CPR. If you have something very simple for them to do — call 911, start compressions — they might overcome that panic or hesi­ta­tion.”

The hands-only approach, the doctor said, “is easy to teach, easy to remember and the majority of the population can do it.”

The impetus behind the expanded CPR training began in the 1970s in Seattle, where D.C.’s fire chief, Gregory M. Dean, spent 44 years before coming to the District in May 2015.

The training of thousands of residents there and in surrounding King County has been attributed to the city’s Medic One program, a pioneer in the concept of advanced life support. Seattle and its environs rank among the top cities for surviving heart attacks.

The District’s chief, who said firefighters in the city respond to about 600 heart attacks each year, wants to see the odds of survival similarly improve here. “We are trying to enhance the number of people in the District who can take care of each other,” Dean said.

There already are some promising signs, but there is work to do, the chief said. In the first half of 2013, the department responded to 251 heart attacks, 103 of which were witnessed by bystanders. Officials said bystanders performed CPR in 32 of those cases, about 13 percent of the overall total. Dean said that during the same period this year, bystanders gave CPR in 52 of the total 323 heart attack cases, about 16 percent.

In Howard County, fire officials said that about half of the 125 to 150 people who suffer heart attacks witnessed by others each year received CPR from a bystander. About half of those people survived. “Not everybody in cardiac arrest will survive,” said Levy, the fire department’s medical director. “But we want to give people the best chance.”

D.C. fire officials said the same day that the District’s 911 operators were taught the hands-only approach in January, calltaker Sheldon Thorne coached a woman through eight minutes of chest compressions to help an 82-year-old man who collapsed at a senior center.

Thorne spent nearly 15 minutes on the phone with her, calmly giving instructions even as she cried. “We’re sending help to you as we’re on the phone,” he told her. He instructed the woman to get the man flat on his back and “place the heal of your hand on the breastbone in the center of his chest. Pump the chest hard and fast. We’re going to do this until help takes over.”

When the woman faltered, Thorne said: “I want you to count aloud so I can do this with you. .?.?. One, two, three four. .?.?. Keep going. You’re doing great. Don’t stop. Keep it up. This is what he needs right now. You’re helping him out.” The man was taken to the hospital, but he did not survive.

On June 18, Dylan Mehri put the advanced CPR training he learned as an Eagle Scout and in scuba diving to work at the Folger Theatre during a play called “District Merchants.” The 20-year-old resident of Northwest Washington, who recently completed his sophomore year at Oberlin College, was near the back row with his mother and sister when a patron collapsed near the stage.

As people shouted for help, Mehri rushed to the stage while a nurse technician went to grab a defibrillator. “I realized, okay, I need to see if I can do something,” he said. The play stopped as Mehri started CPR.

Mehri has been trained in both advanced and Hands-Only CPR, but he said he could see the man was breathing and the audible instructions on the defibrillator only mentioned chest compressions, which he did for about eight minutes until firefighters arrived. The man survived and has asked through his doctors to meet Mehri.

“CPR is not the most difficult thing to learn,” the college student said. “But to be honest, I was a little bit anxious about using it. I wasn’t sure if I was doing the right thing the whole time. I was in a weird zone, completely focused on keeping this person alive. I just knew that I had to do all that was in my power to keep him alive, and that’s what we did.”

https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/public-safety/a-lesson-learned-in-minutes-may-save-lives-hands-only-cpr/2016/07/04/8b46eb5e-33b4-11e6-95c0-2a6873031302_story.html?wpisrc=nl_rainbow&wpmm=1

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